Cognitive Development during Adolescence

                                     Cognitive Development during Adolescence  Adolescents- Cognitive development does not halt in childhood; on the contrary it continues throughout adolescence and results, ultimately, in more mature modes of thought (Klaczynski, 1997). Theory of mind– their understanding of how they and others think- continues to think and develop. Younger children take what has been described as a realistic approach to knowledge; they believe that knowledge is a property of the real world and that there are definite facts or truths that can be acquired. In contrast, older children and preadolescents become aware of the fact that specialists often disagree; this leads them to progress a relativist approach, which identifies that different people may interpret the same information in contrasting ways. Preadolescents go a bit farther, opting a defended realism approach, which identifies the difference between facts… Read More »Cognitive Development during Adolescence

Cognitive Development during Early Years

                                           Cognitive Development during Early Years Cognitive development is the study concerned with working of mind. Cognitive development is defined as the construction of thought processes, comprising remembering, problem solving, and decision making from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. Cognitive development indicates how a person perceives, thinks, and gain understanding of his or her world through the interaction of genetic and learned factors. Amongst the areas of cognitive development are information processing, intelligence, reasoning, language development and memory. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development contains many valuable insights and has guided a great deal of research. Though his theory was criticized for some reason but still considered to be uniquely valuable one by many developmental psychologists. Piaget’s theory Piaget theory of cognitive development is a stage theory- a type of theory suggesting that all human beings… Read More »Cognitive Development during Early Years

Physical Development in Later Life

                                                  Physical Changes in Later Life Average age in many Western countries is currently rising at a steady pace. In the United States, for example, the proposition of the population sixty-five or older has risen from about 4 or 5 percent in 1900 to about 12 or 13 percent now; and this figure will increase to almost 20 percent when the baby – boom generation born during the 1950’s and 1960’s turns sixty five. Similar trends are occurring in many other developed countries. These trends make it particularly important to understand physical changes during the later decades of life. Stereotypes suggesting that people in their sixties, seventies, and eighties are generally frail, in poor health, and unable to take care of themselves turn out to be largely false. In the United States a very large… Read More »Physical Development in Later Life

Physical Development during Middle Life

Physical Development during Midlife By the time people turn forty, they become aware of the age-related changes occurring in their bodies. Cardiac output, the amount of blood pumped by the heart, decrease noticeably, and the walls of the large arteries lose some degree of flexibility. As a result, less oxygen can be delivered to working muscles within a given period of time, and even people who exercise regularly become aware of some decline in this respect in this respect. They simply can’t do quite as much as they once could. The performance of other major organ systems, too, declines, and an increasing number of people experience difficulties with digestion. Other changes are readily visible when middle-aged people look in the mirror: thinning and graying hair, bulges and wrinkles in place of the sleek torso and… Read More »Physical Development during Middle Life

Physical Change during Early Adulthood

                                         Physical Change during Early Adulthood Physical growth is usually complete by the time people leave their teens; but for some parts of the body, the process of aging actually begins long before this time. For example, the lenses in our eyes begin to lose flexibility by the time we are only twelve or thirteen years old. For some people, the tissues supporting their teeth have already begun to recede and weaken even before they have attained full physical maturity. So, aging, like growth, is a continuous process that starts very early in life. Such change occurs quite slowly at first, but then proceeds more rapidly in later decades. Muscular strengths, reaction time, sensory acuity, and heart actions and output are all at or near their peaks through the mid-twenties and then decline- slowly –… Read More »Physical Change during Early Adulthood

Physical Development during Adolescence

 Physical Development during Adolescence The beginning of adolescence is signaled by a sudden increase in the rate of physical growth. While the growth spurt occurs for both sexes, it starts earlier for girls (at about age ten or eleven) than for boys (about age twelve or thirteen). Before this spurt, boys and girls are similar in height; in early phases, girls are often taller than boys; after it is over, males are several inches taller, on average, than females. This growth spurt is just one aspect of puberty, the period of rapid change during which individuals of both genders reach sexual maturity. During puberty the gonads, or primary sex glands, produce increased levels of sex hormones, and the external sex organs assume their adult form. Girls begin to menstruate and boys start to produce sperms.… Read More »Physical Development during Adolescence

Physical Development during Early Years

                                       Physical development during early years Physical growth is rapid during infancy. Assuming good nutrition, infants almost triple in weight and increase in body length by about one-third during the first year alone. Although infants are capable of eating immediately, they have limited capacity for what they can consume at one time-their stomachs will not hold very much. They compensate for this by eating small amounts frequently, about 2.5 to 4 hours.  At birth, babies have a little ability to regulate their own temperature; in fact, they can’t maintain a normal body temperature by themselves until they are about eight or nine weeks old. So, it’s important to keep them warm- but not too warm! Reflexes: At birth newborns possess several simple reflexes – inherited responses to stimulation in certain areas of the body. If… Read More »Physical Development during Early Years

Prenatal period/Conception

    Conception/ Prenatal Period Prenatal period: It is the time when sperms travels up through the vagina, into the uterus, and fertilizes an egg found in the fallopian tube. This takes several days, and during this time the ovum divides frequently. Ten to fourteen days after fertilization, it becomes implanted in the wall of the uterus. For the next six weeks it is known as an embryo and develops rapidly. By the third week the embryo is about one-fifth of an inch (one- half centimeter) long and the region of the head is clearly visible. By the eight week the embryo is too, all major internal organs have begun to form; and some, such as the sex glands, to appear during the eighth or ninth week after fertilization. During the next seventh months the developing… Read More »Prenatal period/Conception

Observational Learning

Observational Learning Observational learning: The acquisition of new forms of behavior, information or concepts through exposure to others and the consequences they experience. Key factors in Observational Learning: 1. Attention:  The extent to which humans focus on other’s behavior. As in order to learn something people must direct their observation to appropriate models that attract them either through their actions or status. 2. Retention: Individuals’ ability to retain a representation of others’ behavior in memory. For instance, People are able to remember what the person have said or done. Only if they can retain some representation of other’s actions in memory, they only they can perform similar actions. 3. Production Processes: One’s ability to convert memory representations into appropriate actions. This is also termed as production processes. Production process depends on two aspects: 1) Individual’s… Read More »Observational Learning

Ethical issues in Psychological Research

                             Ethical Issues in Psychological Research Ethics states the correct rules of conduct necessary when carrying out research. Some of the ethical issues that researcher needs to follow are: 1. Deception: It is temporary withholding of information about a study from participants. The researcher should neglect misleading subjects about the nature of the research unless there is no substitute-and even then this would need to be judged, acceptable by an independent expert. 2. Informed Consent: A principle requiring that research participants be provided with information about all events and procedures a study will involve before they agree to participate in it. Participating must be given information relating to: Participation of subject is voluntary and that refusal to participate will not result in any consequences or any loss of benefits that the person is otherwise entitled to… Read More »Ethical issues in Psychological Research