Research Methods in Psychology

  Research methods in Psychology Research methodology: It is the definite method or techniques used to recognize, select, process, and examine information about a topic.  In a research paper, the methodology segment allows the reader to critically evaluate a study’s overall validity and reliability. Observation: One basic technique for studying behavior – or any other aspect of the world-involves carefully observing it as it occurs. It is one method for collecting research data. It involves observing a participant and recording significant behavior for later analysis. They do this because they wish to make careful observations of the physical events that occur as tornadoes actually take shape. Researchers use systematic observation, which is a basic method of science in which the natural world, or various events or processes in it, are observed and measured in a… Read More »Research Methods in Psychology

Psychology as Scientific Method

Psychology as Scientific Method The scientific Method: Its Basic Nature According to many people, the term science conjures up the images of white-coated people working in laboratories or hospitals, due to which people conclude that word Science applies only to the fields such as chemistry, physics, or biology. Although, this term refers simply to as special approach for acquiring knowledge- an approach involving the use of several key values or standards. We human beings are part of the natural world, and thus the scientific method can certainly be applied to the study of our behavior and cognition. It is the adoption of scientific method that makes psychology a science- and that makes the information it acquires so valuable. The actual procedure used by psychologists in applying the scientific method is: A) Accuracy: Collection and assessment… Read More »Psychology as Scientific Method

Thorndike’s Experiment

                                                   Thorndike’s Cat Experiment Edward Thorndike is well-known in the field of psychology for his work on learning theory that lead to the growth of operant conditioning within Behaviorism. Thorndike studied learning in animals (usually cats). He planned a classic experiment in which he used a puzzle box to empirically test the laws of learning. Experiment: He placed a cat in the puzzle box, which was encouraged to escape to reach a scrap of fish placed outside. Thorndike would put a cat into the box and calculate the time that how long it would took to escape. The cats experimented with various methods to escape the puzzle box and reach the fish. After some time they would stumble upon the lever which opened the cage. When cat had escaped from the cage it was put in… Read More »Thorndike’s Experiment

Operant Conditioning Learning

                                                     Operant Conditioning Learning B.F. Skinner projected his theory on operant conditioning by conducting numerous experiments on animals. He used a special box known as “Skinner Box” for his study on rats. According to the experiment, a hungry rat was placed inside the Skinner box, where the rat was inactive, but gradually as it began to adapt to the environment of the box, it began to explore around. Sooner or later, the rat observed a lever, upon pressing which; food was released inside the box. After it filled its hunger, it pressed the lever for the second time as it grew hungry again. The phenomena sustained for the third, fourth and the fifth time, and after a while, the hungry rat immediately pressed the lever once it was placed in the box. Then the conditioning… Read More »Operant Conditioning Learning

The Little Albert’s Experiment

                                                           Little Albert Experiment  A renowned psychology experiment conducted by behaviorist John B. Watson was Little Albert’s Experiment. Watson was fascinated in taking Pavlov’s research further to show that emotional reactions could be classically conditioned in humans. Experiment: Watson and Rayner exposed a 9 months, Albert, a child to a chain of stimuli comprising a white rat, a rabbit, a monkey, masks, and burning newspapers and observed the boy’s reactions. The boy showed no fear of any of the objects shown to him. The next time, Albert was exposed to the rat; Watson made a loud sound by hitting a metal pipe with a hammer. Naturally, the child began to cry after listening the loud noise. After repeatedly pairing the white rat with the loud noise, Albert began to cry simply after watching the rat.… Read More »The Little Albert’s Experiment

Classical conditioning

Theory of Classical Conditioning Pavlovian conditioning is also known as classical conditioning.  It is the learning through association and was discovered by Ivan P. Pavlov, a Russian physiologist. In other words, two stimuli are linked together to produce a response in a person or animal. John Watson recommended the practice of classical conditioning based on Ivan Pavlov work’s and was able to describe all the aspects of human psychology. There are three stages of classical conditioning. At each point the stimuli and responses are given special scientific terms: Stage 1: Before conditioning: This stage states that, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) produces an unconditioned response (UCR) in an individual, which means that a stimulus in the environment who has produced a behavior/ response which is unlearned (i.e., unconditioned) and therefore it is a natural response which… Read More »Classical conditioning

Psychoanalysis by Freud

Psychoanalysis Why Sigmund Freud is known as Father of Psychoanalysis? Sigmund Freud (1856 to 1939) was the founder of psychoanalysis, a technique which is used for healing mental illness and also a theory which describes human behavior. Freud believed that day to day events in our childhood have a major impact on our adult lives and helps in shaping our personality. Thus, when we explain individual’s behavior to ourselves or others, we hardly give a true account of our motivation. This is not because we are consciously lying. While human beings are great swindlers of others; they are even more adapt at self- deception. Freud’s life work was dominated by his efforts to find ways of penetrating and expand camouflage that muddles the latent structure and processes of personality. The Unconscious Mind According to Sigmund… Read More »Psychoanalysis by Freud

Schools of Psychology

Schools of psychology Psychology when developed as a Science and got parted from biology and philosophy, the discussion over how to describe and explain the human mind and behavior began. The different schools of psychology signify the chief theories within psychology. The following are some of the major schools of thought that have swayed one’s knowledge and understanding of psychology. Structuralism and Functionalism: Early schools of thought Structuralism was considered the first school of thought in psychology. It concentrates on breaking down the cognitive processes into the most basic components. Major theorists who contributed in the field of structuralism were Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener. Introspection was the technique used by structuralists to examine the inner processes of the human mind.  Functionalism focused as a reaction to the theories of structuralism’s school of thought and… Read More »Schools of Psychology

Introduction to Psychology

Introduction to psychology According to American Psychological Association, Psychology is the scientific study of human mind and behavior. It seeks to understand, explain and how people think, perform and feel. Psychologists are keenly involved in studying and comprehending mental processes, brain functions, and behavior. The APA adds that it “embraces all facets of the individual experience, from the functions of the brain to the action of body, from birth till death. As it is well known that mind is highly complex, and conditions that relate to it can be tough to treat. History of Psychology  In a philosophical context, Psychology was founded thousands of years ago in Greece, Egypt, India, Persia and China. In 1879, Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, Germany founded the first laboratory of psychology and carried out psychological research. Because of this reason… Read More »Introduction to Psychology